A Guide to English Cladonia Species and Associated Lichens

This is a guide to identifying English Cladonia species, mostly those of heathland but with other Cladonia species added for completeness, along with similar and associated heathland lichens. It is split into mostly artificial groups based on general characteristics. This is intended as a rough key but, in identifying Cladonia, reading though and comparing descriptions of the potential species can produce better results, than using dichotomous keys. The Cladonia key in the Lichens of Great Britain and Ireland for example tends to key out well developed specimens only, for example immature or stunted specimens of Cladonia polydactyla without cups will key out as Cladonia macilenta, in spite of both species being quite distinct in their cortex characters.

The first important split is whether the lichen has squamules or not.

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